Kharkov ( Ukrainian - Kharkiv , eng. - Kharkov ) is the first capital of Soviet Ukraine and the second largest city in Ukraine, the administrative center of the Kharkiv region , founded in the middle of the 17th century.
TOP-3 sights of Kharkov
From 1919 to 1934 Kharkov was the capital of Soviet Ukraine. The new status of the city required new approaches to urban development, one of which was the construction of the House of State Industry (abbreviated as Gosprom). This landmark of Kharkov is the first high-rise building made of reinforced concrete in the USSR, made in the constructivism style that was fashionable at that time.
According to the plan of the architect Mikhail Lovtsov, the author of this Kharkov landmark, erected in 1901, the cathedral should have been different from other churches in Kharkov in both its appearance and decoration. And he did it! The size of the church is amazing: the height of the bell tower with a cross is 80 m. Capacity is about 4000 people. The pearl of the interior of the cathedral is the white marble iconostasis.
Park of Culture and Rest Maxim Gorky is the full name of this attraction in Kharkov. The place is interesting because on a well-groomed territory among tall trees there are ultramodern attractions, which are interesting not only for children, but also for adults. Among them is a modern Ferris wheel, which offers a beautiful panorama of the city of Kharkov.
Sights of Kharkov in a historical context
In 1659, a fortress appeared on the cape at the confluence of the Kharkov and Lopan rivers, designed to protect the southern borders of the Moscow state. With the liquidation of Cossack self-government in 1765, Kharkov became the center of the Sloboda-Ukrainian province and, thanks to its advantageous position, turned into the largest trade center of the region.
The oldest surviving stone building of the city is considered to be the slender Pokrovsky Cathedral, erected on the territory of the former fortress in 1689. It is an integral part of the Holy Intercession Monastery, where the bell tower and the Ozeryanskaya church are preserved, as well as later buildings - saddlery, stables, bishops' (1820) and administrative (1912) at home. In the central part of the city in the XVIII century. a number of stone administrative and religious buildings emerge - the house of the Kharkov Collegium and Governor (1768), in the premises of which Kharkov University was founded in 1805, the provisions of the bank and government offices.
The greatest among the temples of that time is the Assumption Cathedral (1777) and the later completed 89-meter bell tower (1844). At the turn of the XIX-XX centuries. a huge number of stone buildings for various purposes appeared in the city - the buildings of banks and hotels, apartment buildings and trading houses, gymnasiums and theaters, mansions and administrative buildings, etc. Then the city was decorated with a number of remarkable religious buildings - the Church of St. Panteleimon the Healer (1898), the Annunciation Cathedral (1901) and others.
A 15-year period (1919-1934), during which Kharkov was the capital of Soviet Ukraine, became a special stage in the development of the city, which added many notable touches to its architectural appearance. The most significant in this regard is the ensemble of Europe’s largest Freedom Square. This is a unique place in Ukraine, where the architectural style of the young Soviet state was polished. An ensemble of structures was preserved on the square, the sequence of construction of which was determined by their significance for the then country - the building of the State Industry Committee (1925-1929), the house of design organizations (now the building of Kharkov University, 1930-1932), the house of cooperation (1929-1954) and the four buildings of the hotel International ”(now“ Kharkov ”, 1932-1936).
And in our time, the combination of buildings of the pre-revolutionary era and Soviet times determines the architectural style of the central part of Kharkov. The city has many beautiful monuments (to N. Gogol, V. Karazin, G. Kvitke-Osnovyanenko, M. Kropyvnytsky, etc.), among which one of the best multi-figure compositions to the Ukrainian Kobzar - Taras Shevchenko (1936) is known.
This section concerns the sights of the city of Kharkov, and about interesting places and attractions of the Kharkiv region read here .
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