Lviv

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For many, Lviv is a city in Central Europe, although this cannot be said for its infrastructure. Until 1939 they were never controlled from Moscow, and it was here that Ukrainian nationalism and the Catholic Church gained strength in the late eighties. Avoiding the devastation of World War II, Lviv keeps history together with its towers and hills.

Lviv is the largest city in Western Ukraine, its informal capital, as well as the quite official center of the Lviv region , is located on the banks of the Poltva and Bison rivers. Initially, the city was founded in the middle of the XIII century. on the edge of the ridge Rastochye by the Galician-Volyn prince Daniil of Galich and named after his son. On a hill towering above the district, a fortress appeared, later called the High Castle and is one of the most famous sights of Lviv .

The settlement was first mentioned in 1256, and subsequently (1272) it became the center of the principality. The preserved sights reminiscent of these distant times in Lviv - the ruins of the fortress and the oldest architectural landmark of the city ​​of Lviv - the Nikolaev Church, built in the 13th century.

In 1349, the city was captured by the Polish king Casimir III the Great, by order of whom they founded New Lviv , named in the Latin manner - Leopolis. 1356 city rights are granted to the new building, Leopolis becomes a major handicraft (almost 30 workshops) and trade center and turns into the main "bazaar of Eastern Europe". Ruthenians, Poles lived here, the Germans, Armenians and Jews, who were already in the 16th century, were invited by Daniel Galitsky. accounted for a quarter of the urban population. The reminder of the Armenians in Lviv is the Armenian Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary (1370), and another outstanding place about the Jews exterminated by the Nazis - the remains of the Golden Rose synagogue (1582).

At the end of the Middle Ages, many city structures appeared in Lviv , which (albeit mosaic) create an amazing architectural appearance of the historical heart of modern Lviv, which has no analogues in Ukraine. In 1998, the central part of the city was included in the UNESCO World Cultural and Natural Heritage List.

The old city was built and existed until the first partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1772. It was formed according to Western European canons - the central part was occupied by the market square, surrounded by residential quarters, churches and fortification lines (with a total area of ​​about 50 hectares).

In the middle of 1527, Leopolis was completely destroyed by a terrible fire, and the city council (since 1540) obliged to build only stone walls inside the city walls. The Leopolias fortification system developed by the middle of the 15th century. and lasted about three centuries, withstanding dozens of sieges. Sometimes the city community bought off from the aggressors and only once Leopolis was captured by the Swedish king Charles XII (in 1704).

Market Square - a famous attraction in Lviv - was created in the middle of the XIV century. and corresponded to the medieval traditions of European urban planning, its architectural ensemble was formed in the second half of the XVI - beginning of the XVIII century. The central part of the square is occupied by the obligatory component of the medieval city - the town hall, which is a wonderful attraction of the city of Leo . The first one appeared here at the end of the fourteenth century, and the current one cut the sky of Lviv in 1835 with its tower. 44 houses, which belonged to merchants and famous citizens in the past, surround the square with dense squares. The most famous of them related to the sights of Lviv is the Black House, originally created by 1589 Italian masters and subsequently faced with blackened limestone.

After the first partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1772, Leopolis withdrew to Austria, received the name Lemberg and turned into the capital of a vast region. The city instantly changed its appearance (demolition of the fortification), it was decorated with charming buildings in the style of Viennese classicism: the Skarbek Theater (1842, now the M. Zankovetskaya Theater), the Ossolineum (1830, now the V. Stefanik Science Library), the Galician Seym ( 1881, now the main building of the I. Franko University), the Opera and Ballet Theater. S. Krushelnytska (1900), Lviv railway station (1903) and many others. In these times, the architectural ensemble of the center of Lviv was formed, and today this attraction amazes the guests of the city.

Based on the materials of the large guide Sights of Lviv , 2013

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